2007/01/04

電子商務網站經營者的終極標靶 – 顧客轉換率

撰文 : CCMedia行銷顧問群

網站流量不代表一切

許多電子商務網站的經營者都會誤信一件事 --- 把EC網站的流量創造能力(因)與獲利能力(果)劃上等號,相信只要有能力為網站創造更多人潮(因),就一定能為創造更多的訂單數(果),基於對這種因果關係堅信不移,因此將全部的心力投注在創造流量上,結果來訪的人潮是增加了,但訂單數卻不見得跟著成長……其實,請恕筆者這麼說,很可能這是另一種災難的開始。

一直以追求「網站流量」為終極目標的電子商務網站經營者,真的需要重新改變想法囉! 因為,還有更重要的一項網站經營績效指標值得被當作終極標靶來挑戰。究竟是什麼指標這麼重要? 這樣好了,在此先舉一個Amazon.com幾年前遇到的困境為例,來證明筆者所言不假!

Amazon.com過去遇到的困境

於1994年成立不過5年,就有每股113美元、被認定為世界最成功的B2C ( Business to Customer)企業—國際最大網路書店Amazon.com,從成立至今,一直以標準的獲利模式(Profit Model)經營線上書籍的銷售,過去曾經一度對未來抱持著悲觀的看法。

其實Amazon.com的知名度以及造訪者人數一直保持著驚人的水準,以早期2000年4月來說,平均每個月網站造訪人數就已達到1萬五千名。不過,該網站的財務指標卻面臨著現實的考驗,所累積的赤字超過10億美金。更嚴重的是,當時大家對於”網站只要吸引到更多的造訪者,網站銷售規模就會增加”深信不疑,所以Amazon.com就設法提升網站的訪客流量,但網站營運收益卻背道而馳,出現網站財務赤字的危機……。看到這裡,相信您應該明白網站流量不代表一切了。那麼,什麼才是Amazon.com值得追求的網站經營績效指標呢?

隨著對於e-Commerce網站獲利模式(Profit Model)的注重,「顧客轉換率」成為最新注目的焦點。

什麼是顧客轉換率?

所謂「顧客轉換率」,即指將網站造訪者 (Visitor) 轉換成實際購買商品的顧客 (Purchaser)所呈現的比率。
顧客轉換率 = 購買商品的顧客數量 / 造訪總數或訪客總數

根據1999年Forrest報告書的內容,有70% e-Commerce網站的顧客轉換率無法達到2% 的情形出現。也就表示一百名網站造訪者中實際有完成購買程序成為網站的購買顧客不超過二名。

為何要注重顧客轉換率?

網站營運的成本是有限的,所以在有限的成本之下要創造出最佳的收益,是網站經營者的核心目標。若是把追求「高網站流量」的電子商務網站、與追求「高顧客轉換率」的電子商務網站一起拿來做比較,就會發現二者在策略做法上明顯產生差異。例如在行銷預算的花費上,前者可能花了龐大的行銷費用、卻吸引到大量對網站商品內容不感興趣的游離訪客,反倒不如後者集中有限資源去設法吸引到素質較佳、屬於網站目標客群、較有機會產生交易的訪客。

「質」比「量」更重要

當然,追求「高顧客轉換率」所帶來的意義除了能促進網站經營者,朝往優勢的戰略方向及決定資源投資方式外,也間接影響電子商務網站經營者在訪客或會員的經營理念上,認為「質」比「量」更重要。雖然提高網站訪客的流量,如透過電子郵件行銷、線上廣告行銷方式等等,吸引大量的造訪者進入網站瀏覽,也是非常重要的任務,但如何藉由了解訪客的造訪習性、瀏覽網站的行為等這些相關資訊,提供訪客最適切及最佳的內容及服務,以滿足其對於網站的需求,進而產生消費行為,這一連串的從訪客轉換成顧客的過程才是難度更高的挑戰。

有時候「顧客轉換率」偏低不代表電子商務網站所提供的商品不佳、或是吸引到的訪客族群不對,反而問題是出在交易流程或瀏覽動線上,無法讓訪客在有效時間內獲得滿足及完成交易,引起他們的諸多不滿而離站。遇到這樣的情況往往會大量流失顧客,也使得網站經營者將面臨網站營運成本不斷的提高,而網站收益卻逐漸下滑的困境,即使是吸引再大量的造訪者,也無法改善問題。

找出「顧客轉換率」偏低的真正問題

針對這類型的問題,電子商務網站經營者可以藉由使用一些「高階網路訪客行為分析工具」找出問題發生原因,也就是透過對訪客瀏覽行為的分析,不僅可以提供網站經營者評估與提升網站經營效能,更能協助改善網站設計,掌握關鍵客群的偏好與行為模式。像是可以從分析的結果得知在整體網站購買流程中,客戶有多少人完成結帳手續,藉由最後完成該流程的比率做為網站經營績效的檢視基礎…,提供網站經營者進一步思考是否是網頁購買程序太過複雜或線上交易安全機制不能給予顧客信服等原因,並加以檢討改善,以期大幅提升網站的顧客轉換率。

結論

顧客轉換率在隨著e-Commerce網站獲利模式 (Profit Model) 的出現,成為網站經營策略中極為重要的指標之外,也擺脫了過去單純只是增加網站造訪者的流量、就可以提高網站營運收益的看法。不僅如此,顧客轉換率的概念還可引導網站營運者提升網站與顧客互動的效果,及有效率地運用網站成本達到網站營運的最佳收益。综合上述說明,可以了解到一點就是,當網站經營者對於顧客轉換率的認知毫無概念,或是對於顧客無法提供最適切服務的話,那麼就會即將面臨網站經營危機的可能。

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